Unit 2: Industrial Revolution Notes


  1. Industrial Revolution
    1. Industrialization ~ shift from man power to machine powered goods and services
    2. Begins in England
      1. Growth of Middle Class
      2. Enclosure Movement – when large landowners enclose grazing lands forcing small farmers to sell their land and move
      3. Money is available
      4. Natural Resources – Coal, Iron, Rivers and Harbors
      5. Available Markets
  2. Revolution in Textiles
    1. Textile Industry
      1. Flying Shuttle – Allowed more cloth to be created
      2. Spinning Jenny – Allowed for more yarn or thread to be created
  3. Revolution in Other Areas
    1. Steam Engine – fine tuned by James Watt
    2. Coal and Iron Industry increase
    3. Railroads
  4. New Problems
    1. Working Conditions
    2. Increased Population
    3. Cities Grow in size
    4. New Classes emerge
    5. Environmental Damage

Effects of Industrialization

Size of Cities
  • Growth of factories brings job seekers to cities
  • Factories develop near power sources
  • Urban Population skyrockets
  • Cities begin specializing in certain areas
Living Conditions
  • No sanitary/building codes
  • Lack of urban necessities
  • Disease
  • Eventually better housing, health, and cheaper clothing
Working Conditions
  • Factories dirty and unsafe
  • Many new jobs created
  • Harsh factory discipline
  • Overtime higher wages, shorter hours and better working conditions
Emerging Social Classes
  • Change in social order of wealth
  • Class tensions between, lower, middle and upper classes
  • In general a rising standard of living
  1. Spread of Industrial Revolution
    1. Britain had good location, financial systems, political stability and natural resources
    2. Samuel Slater brings industrialization to America ~ builds the Spinning Jenny from memory
    3. Francis Cabot Lowell founded the first manufacturing center in America
  1. America becomes a Industrial Power
    1. After Civil War US goes through a technological boom
      1. Railroads increased
      2. New inventions
      3. Growing urban population
  1. Large Corporations begin to establish themselves by creating large trusts or monopolies
  2. Industrialization in Europe
    1. Belgium industrializes first
    2. Germany industrializes slowly at first due to political fracturing
    3. Pockets of Industrialization do appear in places like the Ruhr Valley
    4. The rest of Europe Industrialized region by region not by country
  1. World Wide Industrialization
    1. Industrialization enlarges the gap between the rich and poor countries
    2. Society benefited from the Industrial Revolution through a increase in wealth, life expectancy, education and in other areas