The Treaty of Versailles
Part 1 of 1: Paraphrase the following excerpts from the Treaty of Versailles. Be sure to include the Article number in your paraphrasing and look up any words you don’t know that keep you from understanding the meaning.
- Article 42: Germany is forbidden to maintain or construct any fortifications either on the left bank of the Rhine or on the right bank to the west of a line drawn 50 kilometers to the East of the Rhine.
- Article 45: As compensation for the destruction of the coal-mines in the north of France and as payment toward the total reparations due from Germany for the damage resulting from the war, Germany cedes to France in full and absolute possession, with exclusive rights of exploitation, unencumbered and free from all debts and charges of any kind, the coal-mines situated in the Saar Basin…
- Article 51: The territories [Alsace-Lorraine] which were ceded to Germany in accordance with the Preliminaries of Peace signed at Versailles on February 26, 1871, and the Treaty of Frankfort of May 10, 1871, are restored to French sovereignty as from the date of the Armistice of November 11, 1918.
- Article 119: Germany renounces in favour of the Principal Allied and Associate Powers all her rights and titles over her overseas possessions.
- Article 159: The German military forces shall be demobilized and reduced…
- Article 160: …After that date [March 31, 1920] the total number of effectives in the Army of the States constituting Germany must not exceed one hundred thousand men.
- Article 170: Importation into Germany of Arms, munitions and war material of every kind shall be strictly prohibited.
- Article 181: After the expiration of a period of two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, the German naval forces in commission must not exceed: 6 battleships, 6 light cruisers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats…No submarines are to be included.
- Article 198: The armed forces of Germany must not include any military or naval air forces.
- Article 231: The Allied and Associate Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their national have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
- Article 232: The Allied and Associated Governments recognize that the resources of Germany are not adequate…to make complete reparations for all such loss and damages. [They], however, require, and Germany undertakes, that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allied and Associated Powers and to their property during the period of belligerency…[Later set at $56 billion.]