Notes for the Nationalism Unit

Independence in Latin America

Where? Who Rebelled? Why? What Happened?
Haiti Slaves led by Toussaint L’Ouverture.  After L’Ouverture’s capture Jean-Jacques Dessalines his second in command finishes the job Faced cruel oppressive masters. Vastly outnumbered the rulers of the island L’Ouverture led forces and forced France to abolish Slavery.  France then captured L’Ouverture throwing him in jail.  Dessalines too over where L’Ouverture left off and freed Haiti from French Control
Spanish South America Simon Bolivar in Venezuela, Columbia and EcuadorJose de San Martin in Chile, Argentina, Peru, Paraguay and Uruguay. Ideals of Freedom and Liberty persuaded the Creole’s to fight for their countries Independence from Spain. Bolivar and San Martin fight the Spanish joining forces and forcing the Spanish to recognize South American Independence.



Mexico Miguel Hidalgo preached Mexican Independence and led rebel army.  Jose Morelos led the Revolution after Hidalgo’s defeat. Class and Ethnic Tensions. Liberal Government in Spain may end Creole and Peninsulares dominance of society Hidalgo and Morales led lower classes to fight for Mexican Independence.  Both were defeated by Spanish Army and Creoles.  Creoles then seized power and declared independence.
Brazil King Jon VI of Portugal ruled the Portuguese Empire from Brazil during Napoleonic Wars. Dom Pedro asked to rule an independent Brazil Brazil had been the center of the Portuguese Empire for 14 years; they did not want to lose that status. When King John VI leaves, Brazil asks his son to rule an independent Brazil.  All agree to it and Brazil becomes independent.




Italian Unification Efforts





I.           Factors against Unification:

  1. Italy was broken into nine
    1. Getting all of these states to agree would be
  2. The Pope wanted to keep control of the Papal States
  3. Other European countries didn’t want to see a strong
    1. This would upset the balance of power in


II.    Factors for Unification:

  1. Nationalism

    1. Country had come together in a war against Austria to get back the provinces she had taken in a previous

Good leadership:

  • Mazzini ~ Soul
  • Count Cavour ~ Mind
  • Garibaldi ~ Sword


  • Steps towards Unification:
    1. A secret society, known as the Risorgimento, had supported revolutions in the 1820’s and 1830’s with hopes of creating an Italian
    2. Young Italy was another nationalistic group, and its leader was Mazzini.
      1. In 1849 Victor Emmanuel II became the king of
        1. He understood that Austrian influence over Italy had to be dealt with before Italy could become a
        2. Cavour made alliances with France and Britain in the 1850’s.
          1. He joined with them in the Crimean War against Russia.
          2. He also agreed to give France a small amount of territory.
        3. Cavour provoked Austria, and Austria declared war in
          1. With the help of the French, the Austrians were defeated.
        4. Events in the South:
          1. Garibaldi, with his red shirts, freed Sicily and southern
          2. Garibaldi wanted to march to Rome, but Cavour persuaded him to stop. It was feared that French troops might come and protect the
        5. In 1860 some of the provinces from the Papal States agreed to join Sardinia.
          1. Also in 1860, Sicily and Naples agreed to join with Sardinia. 2.This represented most of Italy, and Victor Emmanuel II was made the new king of Italy, with Florence as its
        6. The Papal States and Venetia became part of Italy
          1. In 1866 Italy allied itself with Prussia, and when Prussia defeated Austria, Italy was rewarded with Venetia for staying out of the
          2. In 1870 the French withdrew their troops from Rome, and the Italians moved in and seized the Pope’s
          3. Victor Emmanuel II then moved the capital to Rome




    1. Artistic movement that Emphasized Feelings, Focused on Mysterious, Idealized the past, Cherished traditions, Valued common people and the individual and Promoted radical change and democracy
  1. Romanticism linked to…
    1. Folk traditions and nationalism
    2. Rejects the reason of the enlightenment, celebrates emotion
  1. Art
    1. Idealized Nature
    2. Harmony with Nature
    3. Heroes and Scenes from history
  1. Literature
    1. Focused on Strong Individuals
    2. Looked to celebrate heritage of people
  1. Romantic Music
    1. Emotion dominates the music
    2. Celebrates heroism and villainy
    3. Moved away from tightly structured songs of the enlightenment
    1. Realism defined as a Rejection of Romanticism, instead it’s a movement that embraces life as it is
    2. Literature
      1. Focuses on lives of individuals from all aspects of society
      2. Shows life as it is
    3. Art
      1. Emphasizes people’s everyday life especially peasants
    1. Impressionism is an art form that tries to capture precise moments in time
    2. Uses light and colors to capture a moment
    3. Showed the “happier” times of life